Query parameters declaration statement

Queries sent to Kusto may include a set of name or value pairs. The pairs are called query parameters, together with the query text itself. The query may reference one or more values, by specifying names and type, in a query parameters declaration statement.

Query parameters have two main uses:

  • As a protection mechanism against injection attacks.
  • As a way to parameterize queries.

In particular, client applications that combine user-provided input in queries that they then send to Kusto should use the mechanism to protect against the Kusto equivalent of SQL Injection attacks.

Declaring query parameters

To reference query parameters, the query text, or functions it uses, must first declare which query parameter it uses. For each parameter, the declaration provides the name and scalar type. Optionally, the parameter can also have a default value. The default is used if the request doesn't provide a concrete value for the parameter. Kusto then parses the query parameter's value, according to its normal parsing rules for that type.


declare query_parameters ( Name1 : Type1 [= DefaultValue1] [,...] );

  • Name1: The name of a query parameter used in the query.
  • Type1: The corresponding type, such as string or datetime. The values provided by the user are encoded as strings, to Kusto will apply the appropriate parse method to the query parameter to get a strongly-typed value.
  • DefaultValue1: An optional default value for the parameter. This value must be a literal of the appropriate scalar type.


  • Like user defined functions, query parameters of type dynamic cannot have default values.
  • Let, set, and tabular statements are strung together/separated by a semicolon, otherwise they will not be considered part of the same query.


declare query_parameters(UserName:string, Password:string);
print n=UserName, p=hash(Password)
declare query_parameters(percentage:long = 90);
T | where Likelihood > percentage

Specifying query parameters in a client application

The names and values of query parameters are provided as string values by the application making the query. No name may repeat.

The interpretation of the values is done according to the query parameters declaration statement. Every value is parsed as if it were a literal in the body of a query. The parsing is done according to the type specified by the query parameters declaration statement.


Query parameters are provided by client applications through the properties slot of the request body's JSON object, in a nested property bag called Parameters. For example, here's the body of a REST API call to Kusto that calculates the age of some user, presumably by having the application ask for the user's birthday.

    "ns": null,
    "db": "myDB",
    "csl": "declare query_parameters(birthday:datetime); print strcat(\"Your age is: \", tostring(now() - birthday))",
    "properties": "{\"Options\":{},\"Parameters\":{\"birthday\":\"datetime(1970-05-11)\",\"courses\":\"dynamic(['Java', 'C++'])\"}}"

Kusto .NET SDK

To provide the names and values of query parameters when using the Kusto .NET client library, one creates a new instance of the ClientRequestProperties object and then uses the HasParameter, SetParameter, and ClearParameter methods to manipulate query parameters. This class provides a number of strongly-typed overloads for SetParameter; internally, they generate the appropriate literal of the query language and send it as a string through the REST API, as described above. The query text itself must still declare the query parameters.


To set the query parameters sent when making a request to the service, use the Query parameters "wrench" icon (ALT + P).

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